Everything contained in a critical analysis should help you justify your thesis. Research Proposal Some courses require research proposals. Since the format for the proposal may depend on the course for which it is written, it is important to ask the instructor for any special instructions. The introduction has as its basic goal the presentation and justification of a testable hypothesis. The opening paragraph of a research proposal generally identifies a problem and indicates the independent variables of the proposed study. The final paragraph of a research proposal usually provides a brief narrative description of the proposed research and ends with a statement of the hypotheses to be tested.
Given that you now have a general sense of where to begin the opening and where you want to end the hypotheses , the trick is figure out how to get there from here. The purpose of the body of the paper is to justify the hypotheses through a careful analysis of the available research and theory. Thus, the body of the paper must review the research relevant to the independent variables in your proposal. Again, interpretation of the research rather than simply reporting is the goal.
You must state what the research means for the hypotheses you are trying to develop. The second section, titled methods, describes the way you are planning to test the hypotheses. It is frequently sub-divided into sections titled, subjects, design, and procedure. Individual instructors may ask for additional sections. Lab Report A lab report usually contains the same sections as a research proposal with the addition of a results section which contains the data and a discussion which addresses the implications of the data for the hypotheses which prompted the study.
Instructors generally have a format for lab reports. Check with the instructor for the format to use in that course. If your professor has given you a list of suggested topics, of course, take those suggestions seriously. Often, however, you are asked to choose a topic on your own. It is also helpful at this stage to look for a topic that, perhaps from class lectures or your text, you know generates controversy or interesting questions, or leaves you room to participate in problem solving.
Once you have some preliminary ideas, read what is readily available on the topic in your text or the library. Remember that the professor can be a major resource and should be approached early in the process to help you clarify your choice. It is important to select a topic which is appropriate in terms of its level of difficulty. A topic which is too broad will lead to a superficial paper without an adequate focus.
A topic which is too narrow will make it difficult for you to find enough relevant material, or what you discover may be too complex for you. What is appropriate will also depend upon the level of your course. Too Broad: Emotional disturbances schizophrenia Too narrow: Habit disorder in children speech problems in childhood schizophrenia Better: Behavioral models of causal factors in emotional disturbances schizophrenia One test of the appropriateness of your topic will be the amount of relevant material you can find in the library.
If you find too little, the topic may be too narrow; if you feel overwhelmed by the amount available, it may be too broad. Establish early the level of sophistication you expect to achieve with the topic you have chosen. If you are really interested in, or expect to achieve, state of the art knowledge in the area, you will need to start early and search the literature systematically. Frequently, professors set criteria for the minimum number of books, journals, or magazines cited.
The amount of information available and its relevance to the goals of your paper will more appropriately determine the length of your reference list.
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Refer to the section of this manual that deals with the library to get some hints on how to proceed. Start with a preliminary look at the subject catalog for book holdings and check recent issues of the indexes and abstracts most likely to cover your topic to see if there is at least some literature available. This should cause no major difficulty if you allow sufficient time for materials to be located and sent. As you read the literature concerning your topic, proceed by systematically taking notes; be sure to record what you feel is important.
It is easy to get absorbed in the reading and to move on to other materials without pausing to take notes. However, every good writer needs to accumulate notes carefully before attempting to write a paper. It is very helpful to write notes on index cards so they may be reordered at a later date.
Substantive notes summarizing a study or article can be written in the form they might be used in your paper. For instance, after reading a 10 page research report in a journal, your note could summarize the key points in a paragraph that begins: Throckmorton and Doe tested the effect of humor on reducing pre-exam anxiety by showing videotapes of early Candid Camera TV shows during breakfast in a large dining hall on the campus of a small Midwestern liberal arts college.
By consistently taking the time to do this with material that has a high probability of being included in your paper, your literature review will largely be done when you sit down to write the paper. Some detail oriented students get trapped by their note taking. They report finding it hard to screen their reading for importance or relevance and consequently write down everything they read.
Some also find it hard to focus their reading and study in one area only; they end up with enough material for several papers instead of one. All of your reading and note taking need to be guided by an ever evolving game plan and goal for the paper. After you have decided on a topic, collected the relevant research, and taken notes, you have to think about writing the paper. The following are some points to consider as you begin to write.
For example, think about how you would present any topic to your younger brother or sister who is in elementary school, a fellow student, a senior psychology major, your professor, or the major researcher on your topic. Obviously, if you wrote for the major researcher, your younger brother or sister would not have a clue about what you are writing about.
Similarly, if you wrote for your younger brother or sister, the major researcher would be insulted. It is important that you do not write in such a way that the reader is either insulted or confused. Unless your instructor tells you otherwise, assume that your audience is another student who is familiar with the basic concepts and ideas in psychology that you are covering.
In other words, a fellow student in the course should be able read your paper, understand what you are arguing, and accurately report back to you what you have written. The opening paragraph introduces the reader to the problem or issue to be addressed in the paper, it limits what the paper will cover, and it provides a central thesis for the paper. Edit out those vague, general throw away sentences often found in an opening paragraph. Skinner, a famous psychologist who teaches at Harvard and invented the Skinner box which is used to study operant conditioning, is a controversial figure in psychology.
The following are examples of those sentences: Since humans are social beings, we are all affected by people around us. The opening paragraph should make the reader want to read the paper which follows. If you are addressing a problem, note why the problem is important. If you are analyzing some variables, let the reader know what variables will be considered in the paper. Most importantly, the opening paragraph should lead to and end with a clear, concise thesis statement. The thesis statement tells the reader what your paper is all about.
It tells the reader what you plan to show in the paper. Knowing where you want to end up is like having a clear thesis statement. You can organize your arguments to lead the reader to your conclusion. Not having a clear thesis statement is like not knowing where you want to end up. Almost any piece of information is relevant and your paper is confused. The following are some examples of vague thesis statements: Men and women differ in the influence strategies they use.
This paper explores the differences between behavioral and cognitive therapies. The intergroup contact hypothesis can be used to reduce prejudice other than racial prejudice. Compare the thesis statements above with those below. Can you see why the statements below are clearer and more focused? Discrimination against women will continue as long as women use indirect power while men exercise direct power. Use of the intergroup contact hypothesis can reduce prejudice against handicapped people When you have a clear, focused thesis, you know what you have to show in the paper.
In the first example, you would have to show how gender differences in power lead to discrimination. In the third, you would have to show how the intergroup contact hypothesis can be used to reduce prejudice against the handicapped. Remember that an interesting opening paragraph and a clear thesis statement is important regardless of the type of paper you are writing.
The body of the paper may differ, however, as a function of paper type. In a report, the body of the paper conveys the basic ideas contained in the book or article you read. In a review, the body of the paper presents the reasons, and supporting evidence, for why you agree or disagree with the article or book. Outlining your paper before you begin is always a good idea. It helps you organize your ideas and more importantly prevents you from leaving something out.
If you can teach yourself to use outlines effectively, do so. If you cannot outline, allow yourself extra time for editing. Nevertheless, always realize that editing will be required. Some worry so much about every word that they become paralyzed and unable to write. Allow yourself the luxury of putting words down on paper the first time without worrying about whether they are absolutely correct. Our advice to procrastinators and worriers is to write first, edit second, and save the worrying for the outcome of the next national election.
With a first draft in the computer, the hard part is over. Now you can concentrate on refining what you said without the worry of what to say. Does some material need to be moved to another section, or should you revise the outline? You now want to edit for content, style, and organization. While students rarely allow sufficient time for many drafts, professional writers often do four or more drafts and then turn their work over to a copy editor for polishing.
Like any highly refined technique, good writing is the result of practice. When you have done one or more rewrites of your paper, consider these two suggestions before preparing a final copy for your professor.
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When you introduce an idea, it should be developed. First, let someone else read your paper for style, flow, and clarity. In some ways a paragraph is like a mini-paper in that it starts with a central concept, develops that concept, and summarizes it. First, it is unified: each sentence within a paragraph contributes to the same basic concept. You will usually state the concept in a topic sentence at the beginning of the paragraph. Second, the sentences in a paragraph should flow naturally. That is, the ideas presented in each sentence should relate to those contained in the sentences before and after.
One key to making your paper flow is to use transitional words or devices. Transitional words are helpful in tying one sentence to another and connecting different ideas within the same paragraph or paper. Common kinds of transitional devices include pronouns e. You probably already use transitional devices to make comparisons, provide examples, or enumerate. Table 1 provides some examples of transitional phrases and their functions.
Examples of Transitional Phrases and Their Functions. Avoid using broad generalizations unless you follow them with concrete examples. Choosing the correct tense in which to write your psychology paper can be confusing. Most of your paper should be written in the past tense. The reason is that most of what you are describing has already been done. That is, the literature you cite has already been written, and the studies have already been conducted.
As a general rule, discussions of prior research, descriptions of procedure, or statements of results, are in the past tense. While most of your paper will be written in the past tense, certain statements may be in the present tense. Therefore, definitions or statements from a well-defined theory should be stated in the present tense.
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For example: Definition: Drever defines …; in this experiment pain is … Theory: The orthogenetic theory states that …; Freud says … Hypothesis: Memory was not expected to correlate with motivation. In addition to tense, verbs can show voice and person. Traditionally, scientific papers have been written in the third person and the passive voice, i. However, this often results in clumsy prose that is difficult or boring to read.
In term papers it is usually better to use the active voice. The most common grammatical errors concern subject verb agreement. Singular and plural forms of a verb are sometimes incorrectly matched with a subject noun or pronoun. Every sentence must have both a subject and a verb. The subject is that part of the sentence that performs. Many psychology students get confused about the singular and plural forms of certain scientific terms.
You may have learned to write using the generic words he, him, his, man, and mankind to refer to people in general. In addition, you may have habits that either subtly or blatantly support sex role stereotypes. Until recently such sexist usage was not questioned. However, we encourage you to adopt a nonsexist alternative.
Since , the American Psychological Association has encouraged writing styles that support egalitarian attitudes and assumptions about people and sex roles. Below are some tips on writing in an appropriate, nonsexist manner.
Use the plural when you are referring to a class of people. Remember to use current job titles, instead of previous sexist ones. Examples of appropriate titles include: police officer, flight attendant, postal worker, secretary not office girl. Avoid the use of long involved sentences, inverted phrases, etc. Simple, direct declarative sentences are usually the best. In the lower right hand corner of the page, include the number and name of the course for which the paper is being prepared, the date it is submitted, and your pledge.
The style of psychology papers may seem dry but it is intended to be clear and consistent. An evaluation need not have moral implications; an author may be incorrect without the results being unwarranted, bad, etc. Except for very short papers two or three pages your paper should have a title page. Center your title in uppercase and lowercase letters about two inches below the top of the page do not underline.
In the upper right hand corner of this and the following pages should be a page number. Page numbering and headers, as they are called, can be done automatically with PC-Write. The use of numbers in psychology is somewhat different from other styles of writing. In psychology it is important to ensure precision and clarity with the statistics often included in a paper. Therefore, we encourage you to make appropriate use of headings as a means of organizing your paper.
A rule of thumb for using numbers in your paper is that all numbers 10 and above should be expressed in Arabic figures, and all numbers below 10 should be expressed in words. For example, a sentence should never begin with an Arabic number.
Numbers 10 and above Numbers less than 10 Ages and dates Common fractions two thirds of the U. You can see how headings and titles are used in the paper in Appendix A. The table which follows summarizes the use of numbers in the text of a paper. Certain terms and titles have meaning to almost everyone familiar with the field. Three levels of headings are sufficient for most student papers. They are illustrated below: Usually the material which follows the title on the second page is introductory.
These abbreviations make the task of reading simpler. One of the most important tasks in the preparation of papers is the proper citation of references. This may seem a little confusing since most students are used to thinking of bibliographies. The first time you use a heading will be for a section later in the body of the paper. Sometimes it is very helpful to organize material using a list.
There are some important differences between the two. When this appears within a paragraph or sentence, items should be noted alphabetically: a first item, b second item, and so on. A reference section includes only those literature items that are actually cited in the paper. Another type of list is one made up of a series of conclusions or steps in some procedure which need to be entered on separate lines for emphasis. A bibliography will include items that served as background material but which were not explicitly cited also, see the Citation Guidelines page for more information on referencing.
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When you discuss almost anything that is not original with you, such as a book, journal article, or even a lecture, it must have a reference. For every statement that you have adapted from another source, there should be both a included in the body of the paper. There are a three basic ways in which a reference can be cited. First, the sentence containing the material can begin with the author and date: Jones was one of the first researchers to study carefully the annual spring migration of college students to southern beaches.
The reference may be linked with a single sentence or even a paragraph, but the material to which you are referring should be clear from the way you have entered the citation. If you refer to one article or book several times in the same paragraph, or on the same page, you need only use the date once, unless the reader would be confused by such things as other references with the same author which have different dates.
The best rule to follow in this case is common sense. Always ask yourself, will the reader easily understand the source of the material referenced? There are instances when you use references with several authors, or several references which address the same material. Also note that the references are listed alphabetically and in order of publication. Sometimes you will use a reference in your paper with more than two authors. You may find it necessary to cite a reference from a secondary source. For example, you might find a pertinent article discussed in your textbook but discover that the study is unavailable in the library.
This is most likely to occur with older articles or articles from foreign journals. You may wish to include quotations to emphasize important points in your paper. Brief quotations can be marked with quotation marks and included as a part of the text. Quotations longer than one sentence or 40 words should be set in an indented block without quotation marks, as illustrated below.
Whenever you use a quotation, it should be referenced in the same way as other material, with the important addition of the page number s on which the original appeared. Miller has also studied these behaviors and draws the following conclusion: It is clear that the individuals who engage in this activity are often above average in height and lanky in physical build. This common characteristic adds credibility to the hypothesis that the compulsion to engage in such behavior is biologically based.
A summary of the format rules for web material can be found at: Lists. At the conclusion of your paper should be a list of all the references cited in the text. Only references which have actually been used in preparation of the paper should be included here. You must be sure that there is consistency between the citation in the text and the reference list. The style we are describing is consistent with the American Psychological Association style.
Note that only the first letter of the first word is capitalized. The two major types of references are those taken from journals technical, professional magazines and those from books. The examples below should cover most of the more common types of references. Professional journals have continuous page numbering. That is, page numbering continues from one issue to the next for an entire year.
If you have questions about how to present an unusual source of material, check with your professor. When this system is used, it is not necessary to include the month of publication as part of the date. And note that the first line of a reference is flush with the left margin but subsequent lines are indented.
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However, most popular magazines begin each issue with page 1. In this situation, it is necessary to include the month as part of the date. There are a number of special situations that require special reference formats. The fourth example above is a situation where several authors have contributed chapters to a book. Zuzman is the author of a chapter in a book edited by Resnik and Ruben. The final two examples are a government publication and a news article without an author. Congress had, in effect, outlawed the market method of price determination.
According to that theory, the value of a product depends upon how much time and effort the producer puts into it. But I then believed that it was the responsibility of the War Production Board, or some other agency, to allocate the available supply. I have since learned that there is no substitute for the market method of finding the proper price for anything. The market price serves as an adjustor to bring supply and demand toward a balance, encouraging production or encouraging consumption, whichever is necessary.
But what is the sense of a system which cannot work except by accident? I have a great deal of faith that the market method of price determination will bring forth the optimum supply of any commodity or service. No matter how it is determined, any price other than the free market price is bound to result either in an unmarketable surplus of the item or in an unsatisfied demand for it The only security any person can have lies within himself.
Unless he is free to act as an individual, free to be productive in his own behalf, free to determine what part of that production he will consume now and what part he will save, and free to protect his savings, there is no chance that he can find security anywhere. The Pension Idea Dr.
These principles were later refined into the form in which we know them, the Ten Commandments. Man's very existence was predicated upon his obedience to the Law of God. Tradition maintains that this law was formulated as a verbal acknowledgement of the covenant between God and His People. It entailed consideration from both parties, and thus was a legal and binding contract according to the established principles of law.
However, this Covenant did not encompass all of the known population of the world, but merely that group known as God's People, the People of Israel. As chronicled in Genesis, the first book of the Bible, Man, that is, Adam, was ruddy of complexion. This ruddiness was the conscious reminder of his dedication to upholding the Law of God. Whenever he transgressed this law, he would blush, in conscious acknowledgement that he had been disobedient.
The blood would rush to his face, in a visible blush, as the mark of his disobedience and the reminder that he must fulfill the Law. Becoming Your Own Banker — R. Nelson Nash Spanish Ed. Becoming Your Own Banker - The Infinite Banking Concept' is a text for a ten-hour course of instruction about the power of dividend-paying whole life insurance The whole idea is to recapture the interest that one is paying to banks and finance companies for the major items that we need during a lifetime, such as automobiles, major appliances, education, homes, investment opportunities, business equipment, etc.
Building Your Warehouse of Wealth — R. In this great book, Nelson Nash provides another generous helping of his inimitable wit and financial wisdom. Longtime fans will recognize the themes, but will be delighted by new material and insights. Carson, Paul A. Cleveland and L. Individual freedom and liberty are fundamental principles upon which a good society is based. Regrettably, those principles have been under attack for over one hundred years around the globe. The notion that paradise on earth can be achieved by using government has led to the spread of tyranny and despotism.
Clarence B. Carson originally explained this truth in his book, The World in the Grip of an Idea. Proponents of the idea often argue that freedom promotes the worst kind of human behavior and, therefore, must be rejected if moral human action is to prevail. They argue that liberty in general and free enterprise in particular promote jealousy, envy, and greed.
In their opinion, life on this planet would be better served if we substituted government control over individual human action. The assumption is that such a collectivization of life would promote the highest level of virtuous living amongst us. But, this assessment is simply wrong.