But she has been cursed with an extra layer of obligation, as the birthmark on her forearm and over her breast is an inherited one indicating that the goddess can take over body with ease. Tiya calls upon another goddess for assistance while Khenet wrestles with the nightmares of his lost village, reemphasizing to him that he is the last of his people and burdened with an incomprehensible prophecy. Yet that prophecy might just offer the one loophole that could have Tiya and Khenet saving Egypt while escaping with their lives, although it might bring the wrath of a powerful goddess upon their heads.
While Khenet and Tiya have plenty of sexual tension, there really is only one tender, wonderful sex scene between our couple as they are kept pretty busy evading the machinations of evil sorcerers and deities. A view of the Nile River which is probably not far from what an ancient Egyptian would have seen. Did I mention that this book is not just excellent but affordable? While other books in the series appear to be set in the same world, they also are independent of one another, so you can break into the series at any point with impunity.
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Email required Address never made public. Name required. Follow This Blog Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. Tori on Twitter My Tweets. The king was thought to be the living incarnation of Horus and, through him, the god gave all good things to his people. He is usually depicted as a man with the head of a hawk but is represented by many different images. His symbols are the Eye of Horus and the hawk. Hu - God of the spoken word, personification of the first word spoken by Atum Ra at the dawn of creation which brought all into being.
Linked with Sia and Heka. Sia represented the heart, Hu the tongue, and Heka their underlying force which gave them their power. Hu is often seen as a representation of the power of Heka or Atum and is depicted in funerary texts guiding the soul to the afterlife. In the story of the creation of the world, Atum is angered by the intimate relationship between Geb earth and Nut sky and so separates them, declaring that Nut may not give birth to her children on any day of the year. The god Thoth appeared and gambled with Iah for five days worth of moonlight.
He won and divided the moonlight hours into days which, because they were not part of the days of the year decreed by Atum, Nut could give birth in. The Egyptians regulated their calendar with these five magical days.
Iah was eventually absorbed into the god Khonsu. Iabet presided over the eastern deserts and, in time, came to personify them. She was also known as "Cleanser of Ra" who bathed the sun before it appeared in the dawn sky and personified the freshness of the morning sun. She was eventually absorbed into Isis. Ihy - God of music and joy, specifically the music of the sistrum. Son of Hathor and Horus the Elder.
He was worshipped with Hathor at Dendera and invoked at festivals. His birth is honored in wall inscriptions at birth houses in Dendera in the belief that joy and music should welcome children to earth at their birth. Depicted as a child with a sistrum. Imhotep - The vizier of king Djoser c. He lived c. His name means "He Who Comes in Peace" and, after his death, he was deified as a god of wisdom and medicine. He was identified by the Greeks with Aesculapius and was invoked in spells for healing.
His medical treatises claimed, against convential belief, that disease was natural in origin and not a punishment from the gods. Imsety - A protector god, one of the Four Sons of Horus who protected the canopic jar holding the liver. He presided over the south, had the form of a human male, and was watched over by Isis. She is depicted as a hippopotamus or a combination of hippo, crocodile, human female, and lion, most often with a lion's head, hippo's body, human arms, lion feet.
She was known as "Mistress of Magical Protection" and is first referenced in the Pyramid Texts as protecting and nourishing the king. Ishtar - The Mesopotamian goddess of love, sexuality, and war. She was originally Inanna of the Sumerians and Akkadians, who became Ishtar to the Assyrians and influenced the development of other similar goddesses such as Aphrodite of the Greeks, Astarte of the Phoenicians , Hathor of the Egyptians, and Sauska of the Hittites, among others. She was probably first introduced to Egypt through trade in the Early Dynastic Period c.
Isis - The most powerful and popular goddess in Egyptian history. She was associated with virtually every aspect of human life and, in time, became elevated to the position of supreme deity, "Mother of the Gods", who cared for her fellow deities as she did for human beings. Her Egyptian name, Eset, means "Goddess of the Throne" because of her association with the monarch. She cared for people in life and appeared to them after death to help guide them safely to paradise.
During the time of the Roman Empire , she was worshipped in every corner of their realm from Britain through Europe to Anatolia. The Cult of Isis was the strongest opponent of the new religion of Christianity between the 4th-6th centuries CE, and iconography, as well as tenets of belief, of the Isis cult were incorporated into the new faith. Isis-Eutheria - A later Greek version of Isis worshipped in Egypt whose tears, when she mourned for Osiris, were thought to cause the inundation of the Nile River. Iusaaset - A very early Mother Goddess referred to as "Grandmother of the Gods" and linked to Atum at the creation of the world.
She is depicted in the Early Dynastic Period c. She was known as "Lady of the Acacia", an epithet later attributed to Hathor. She was known to the Greeks as Saosis. Iw - A creation goddess worshipped at Heliopolis associated with Hathor and Atum, combining the qualities of Hathor, Nebet, and Hetepet. She provided pure, cool water to the souls of the deceased as they awaited judgment in the Hall of Truth.
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She was associated with Nephthys as a friend of the dead. Kagemni - A vizier to the king Sneferu c. The book was considered so important it was required instruction for children of the monarchy. He was deified after death and worshipped as a god of wisdom. Kek and Kauket - Gods of obscurity and night, members of the original Ogdoad of Hermopolis. Kek was the god of the hours before dawn and was known as "Bringer-in-of-the-Light" as he guided the sun barge of the god Ra toward the sky from the underworld.
Kauket, his feminine balance, was depicted as a woman with the head of a serpent also called "Bringer-in-of-the-Darkness" who presided over the hours of twilight when the sun was setting and guided the sun barge into the underworld. His name and protective qualities were later absorbed by Horus. His name means "First of the Westerners" also given as "Foremost of the Westerners" in reference to his role as a god of the dead associated with the west.
His name and attributes were later absorbed by Osiris. In early myths, he was the god who fashioned human beings from the clay of the Nile River and then held them high so the light of Ra could shine upon them and give them life. Humans were then placed in a womb from which they were born on earth. Khenmu is depicted as a ram-headed god symbolizing virility and fertility. Linked to the god Kherty, another ram-headed god, though a completely different entity.
He is the patron god of potters and those who work in ceramics. Khepri - An aspect of Ra the sun god in his morning form, represented by the scarab beetle. In the Old Kingdom c. Kherty reigned over the entrance and hallways leading to the Hall of Truth while Osiris had reign over the Hall and the Field of Reeds. The dead were greeted by other deities when they arrived in the afterlife and were then brought to the Hall of Truth for judgment by Kherty.
In this role he was benevolent but some inscriptions suggest he was an enemy of order who threatened the deceased king on his entrance to the underworld. Conversely, he is also depicted as protecting the king. He formed one of the most important and influential triads at Thebes along with his father Amun and mother Mut. He is depicted as a mummy holding the crook and flail with a uraeus and moon disc on his head. Khonsu replaced the earlier god Montu as son of Mut and also took on his protective qualities. By the time of the New Kingdom BCE he was extremely popular and worshipped as the greatest among the gods after Amun.
He was associated with healing and images of Khonsu were believed to have miraculous abilities to heal the sick instantly. In the Book of the Dead, the justified souls are said to be able to swim and enjoy themselves by the shores of this lake. His name is linked to the goddess of harmony and truth, Ma'at, and may mean "True Before Ma'at".
This interpretation is likely as his other names include "Lord of Slaughter" and "The Scarlet Lord" referring to his punishment of those who violated the sacred order life presided over by the goddess. He possibly an aspect of the god Nefertum, also a son of Bastet, and formed a triad with Nefertum and Imhotep at Memphis. She set the stars in the sky and regulated the seasons. Ma'at walked with one through life, was present in the form of the Feather of Truth at the soul's judgment after death, and continued as a presence in the paradise of the Field of Reeds.
She is depicted as a woman wearing a crown with an ostrich feather. The word means "that which is straight" and the concept of harmony infused every aspect of an Egyptian's life. Her name means "She Who Runs" for the speed with which she dispensed justice. She is the earliest feline deity in Egypt, pre-dating both Bastet and Sekhmet. All of Mafdet's qualities were later assumed by other female deities but Mafdet remained a popular goddess from the Early Dynastic Period c.
The first temple to him was constructed at Kalabsha during the 18th Dynasty c. Spell 17 also claims that this is the origin of cats on earth. She is the celestial cow goddess who rose from the primordial waters of chaos to give birth to the sun god Ra at the beginning of time. Her name means "Great Flood" and she is associated with fertility and abundance. After giving birth to the sun, she placed it between her horns and every morning lifted it into the sky.
Her qualities were later absorbed by Hathor. Usually depicted as a reclining lioness with three sticks protruding from behind her. She symbolized the vengeful aspect of the Eye of Ra. In one myth, the Eye of Ra departs for Nubia where it transforms itself into a lioness. She was worshipped at Abydos in the cult center honoring her and Onuris. The story of Menhit, Onuris, and the Eye of Ra is an example of the Distant Goddess motif where the eye leaves Ra and returns or is returned, bringing transformation. She was worshipped in the Delta region and associated with Neith and Wadjet as a protective goddess.
Specifically, she guarded the necropolis of the Valley of the Kings. Merit - The goddess of music who helped to establish cosmic order through musical means. She was a minor goddess who was eventually totally eclipsed by Hathor in regard to music. Hathor became associated with the sistrum specifically and music generally but, earlier, Merit was the goddess who "conducted" the symphony of order which accompanied creation. In doing so, she provided the person's destiny through their character. She is depicted as a birthing brick the stone women would squat on to give birth with the head of a woman or a seated woman with a birthing brick on her head.
She undoubtedly was featured in stories of the Distant Goddess, as deities associated with the Eye of Ra usually are, but no stories have been found thus far. She is only known from a single stela at Abydos which shows her standing with the ankh in one hand and a staff in the other as a woman and her daughter approach to pay her homage.
He is shown as the husband of Isis and father of Horus in early inscriptions and so is associated with Osiris. He was a live bull selected from a herd for his completely black coat. Only one Mnevis bull could exist at any one time and another was chosen only after the first died. He was eventually absorbed into Apis. He eventually became associated with Ra as the composite sun god Mont-Ra and was associated with Horus as a war god. The Greeks equated him with Apollo. Mut was a protector deity associated with Bastet and Sekhmet.
She guarded over people in life and, in Spell of the Book of the Dead, is depicted as a savior of souls trapped by demons in the afterlife. Nefertum was born from the bud of the blue lotus flower at the dawn of creation and was originally an aspect of Atum.
The Gods of Egypt
His name means "Beautiful Atum". He was later considered his own deity and became associated with sweet-smelling flowers. He is associated with rebirth and transformation through his link to the sun god and flowers. In Egyptian medicine he was called upon for healing aromas to cure disease and associated with incense. He is depicted as a serpent and, like Heka, has always existed.
Nehebkau swam in the primordial waters at the dawn of creation before Atum rose from the chaos to impose order. She was worshipped at Hermopolis where she was considered the wife of Nehebkau. Neith was a war goddess, creator goddess, mother goddess, and funerary goddess in her time and patron of the city of Sais in the Nile Delta. She was the most important goddess of Lower Egypt in early history and continued to hold a prominent position in worship for millenia. As a creator goddess she was identified with the waters of chaos Nun prior to creation and, in this role, she is called "Grandmother of the Gods" or "Mother of the Gods".
She was thought to have invented birth and was closely associated with living and growing things. As a mother goddess, she is the mediator of the gods' disputes, most famously as the goddess who settles the question of whether Horus or Set should rule Egypt when the tribunal of the gods cannot decide. She also became prominent as a funerary goddess who watched over the dead. Her statue appears with those of Isis, Nephthys, and Serket in Tutankhamun 's tomb.
She is the guardian goddess over Duamutef, one of the Four Sons of Horus who watch over the canopic jars in the tombs and is also depicted as a just judge of the dead in the Hall of Truth. She was associated with Wadjet, protector of Lower Egypt. The two are referred to as "The Two Ladies". His attributes were eventually absorbed by Horus.
Coffin Text II. Her name means "Mistress of the Temple Enclosure" or "Mistress of the House" referring to a heavenly house or temple. She is depicted as a woman with a house on her head. Nephthys is widely, and incorrectly, regarded as a minor deity when actually she was worshipped throughout Egypt from the earliest periods to the last dynasty to rule Egypt.
She was known as "Friend of the Dead" for her care of the souls in the afterlife and professional mourners at funerals, who encouraged the open expression of grief, were known as the "Kites of Nephthys". This text was recited regularly at festivals, services, and funerals throughout Egypt. In some later myths, the goddess Neith is associated with Nu. After the primordial mound rose from the waters of chaos at creation, Atum Ra sent his children Shu and Tefnut out to create the world. When they returned, he was so happy he shed tears of joy which became human beings.
These creatures had nowhere to live and so Shu and Tefnut mated to give birth to Geb earth and Nut sky. Their relationship was so intimate that it disturbed Atum who pushed Nut high above Geb and fixed her there. He also decreed that she could not give birth on any day of the year. Thoth, the god of wisdom, gambled with Iah, god of the moon, and won five days worth of moonlight which he transformed into days.
Nut was able to then give birth to her five children on five consecutive days in July which were not part of Atum's original. In some versions of the story it is Khonsu who loses the gamble with Thoth. In this tale, the Eye of Ra goes forth from Egypt and transforms itself into a lion.
This story is an example of the Distant Goddess motif in which the Eye of Ra departs from the sun god and then is returned or returns itself bringing transformation. Onuris was considered a son of Ra and associated with the god Shu. His image as Anhur appeared on the banners of the Egyptian army as he led them to war, protected them in battle, and brought them safely home. He was the patron god of the Egyptian army and of hunters. His name means "Powerful" or "Mighty". Osiris was originally a fertility god who grew in popularity and influence through the Osiris Myth in which he is killed by his brother, Set, brought back to life by his wife Isis, fathers sky god Horus, and descends to the underworld as Judge of the Dead.
He is an early example of the Dying and Reviving God figure in mythology who leant himself to the later version of this figure, Jesus Christ. Egyptian kings identified themselves with Osiris in death and he is usually depicted as a mummy symbolizing death and with green or black skin symbolizing the fertility of the Nile region and life.
He was so popular that people in ancient Egypt paid to have their bodies buried at Abydos near his cult center and those who could not afford that would pay for memorials to be erected to them or their loved ones at Abydos believing that proximity to Osiris on earth guaranteed easier access to paradise after death. His cult naturally merged with that of his wife and the Cult of Isis, with its symbolism of salvation, eternal life, the dying and reviving god, and the divine son born of a virgin mother, would later influence the development of early Christianity.
At Saqqara, the priests began to worship a hybrid god they called Osiris-Apis who was the god in bull form. As with the traditional Apis bull, a live bull was considered an incarnation of the god. She was thought to hunt at night and terrify her enemies. His name means "Lord of the Two Lands". He was the son of Tasenetnofret, a local goddess of Kom Ombo who was a manifestation of Hathor. They were depicted as dwarf-gods and worn for protection. The temple's reliefs show the god-brothers offering gifts to Isis. Ptah was the great god of Memphis, creator of the world, lord of truth, and chief god of the city of Memphis and its surrounding area c.
Ptah was originally the figure who stood on the primordial mound of the ben-ben at the creation of the world. He was probably an early fertility god and is associated with the moringa tree which, in an early myth, he liked to rest beneath. He was the patron god of sculptors and craftsmen as well as builders of monuments as he was thought to have sculpted the earth. He was sometimes known as Ptah-Nun or Ptah-Naunet in his creative aspect, linking him with the primordial substances of the Ogdoad. He presided over the west, had the form of a hawk, and was watched over by Serket.
She was the goddess of sexual pleasure and sacred ecstasy who was associated with Hathor, Anat, and Astarte. Her name means "Holy" and she is always depicted as a slim naked woman holding the symbols of eroticism and fertility; lotus blossoms in her right hand and snakes or papyrus stems in her left. The pyramids of Giza are associated with Ra as the supreme lord and creator god who ruled over the land of the living and the dead. He drives his sun barge across the heavens by day, showing another aspect of himself with each advance of the sun across the sky, and then dives into the underworld at evening where the barge is threatened by the primordial serpent Apep Apophis and must be defended by the other gods and souls of the justified dead.
Ra was among the most important and popular gods of Egypt. She is associated with Hathor and is depicted as closely resembling Hathor with the uraeus on her head holding the solar disk, sometimes with two feathers over the disk.
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He is depicted as a man with a hawk's head wearing the solar disk as a crown. Her name means "Snake Who Nourishes" and she was goddess of nursing and rearing children. In the afterlife she appeared as the "Lady of Justification" linking her with the goddess Ma'at. She was thought to protect the clothing worn by the king in the afterlife and so was also known as "Lady of the Robes". In this capacity, she appeared as a fire-breathing cobra who drove away the enemies of the king. She was also a grain goddess known as "Lady of the Fertile Fields" and "Lady of the Granaries" who protected the harvest and was the mother of Nepri, god of grain.
She represented the constellation Draco and was a protectress of the sun barge as it made its way through the underworld. She is associated with the better-known Hippopotamus goddess Taweret and, as a sky goddess and protective force, with Hathor and Nut. Reshep is further linked to Mesopotamia through his identification in iconography with the Mesopotamian war god Nergal. Reshep is uniformly depicted as a strong warrior holding a raised war club and wearing a skirt and long Mesopotamian-styled beard.
The name means "Pair of Lions". They were originally associated with Shu and Tefnut as sky deities and eventually became linked with Ra and the solar barge. He is referred to as "Father of the gods" in the Pyramid Texts and was an important aspect of funerary rites where he welcomed the king to the afterlife.
Known also as the "Dweller in Orion", Pyramid Text chapter welcomes the soul, "In the name of the Dweller in Orion, with a season in the sky and a season on earth" which can be understood as, "with a season in the sky after a season on earth". Her name first appears on stone jars at Saqqara which were placed inside the lower chambers of Djoser's Step Pyramid c. She is depicted as a woman wearing the White Crown of Upper Egypt with antelope horns.
Sebiumeker is associated with Atum as a creator god and may have been the supreme god of the pantheon in the region which is modern-day Sudan. He may not have been, however; his placement at doorways could have had some meaning touching on transformation, especially when placed at the doorways of temples. As protector of the divine king, Sed was associated with justice and so linked to the goddess Ma'at.
She was a goddess of destruction and healing, of desert winds and cool breezes. When Ra became tired of the sins of humanity, he sent Sekhmet to destroy them. She was known as "Smiter of the Nubians" in this regard but she also brought natural disaster. Plagues were known as "Messengers of Sekhmet" or "Slaughterers of Sekhmet".
He had his own temple at Heliopolis where he was associated with Osiris in a mummified form symbolizing his protective powers in the afterlife. Serapis was a blend of Osiris and Apis but his character and attributes were a blending of these two Egyptian deities with the Greek gods Zeus, Helios , Dionysius, Hades , and Asklepius.
He was the supreme deity worshipped at the famous Serapeum nearby the Library of Alexandria. Ptolemy I wanted to create the kind of multi-cultural society his late commander and role model Alexander the Great had attempted and Serapis was an important component in this. Serapis was a complete blend of Egyptian and Greek ideals who suited the kind of society Ptolemy I encouraged. Serket was a scorpion goddess depicted as a woman with a scorpion on her head and arms outstretched in a protective pose.
She may have been an early Mother Goddess who evolved into a deity who protected people especially children from scorpion venom and then to one who protected from all venom. A story known as Isis and the Seven Scorpions tells of how Isis was insulted by a rich woman once and Serket, who had sent her seven scorpions along as Isis' bodyguards, instructed one of them to sting the woman's son. The boy was going to die from the venom but Isis saved him and forgave the woman. Afterwards, Serket followed Isis' example of forgiveness and protected other children from scorpions.
Her priests were largely physicians who invoked her name in healing. In the afterlife she helped guide the souls of the dead to paradise and protected a certain dangerous section of travel. Along with Isis, Neith, and Nephthys, she watches over the Four Sons of Horus as they guard the viscera of the dead in tombs.
She is the patroness of libraries, both public and private, and was known as "She Who is Foremost in the House of Books". She was also the patron goddess of scribes. As goddess of measurements she ensured the king measured correctly in commissioning the building of temples and monuments and assisted him in measurements for rituals. She is first mentioned in the Second Dynasty c. Her association with measurements eventually made her the patroness of builders, architects, and those who dealt in accounting for cattle, other animals, and captives seized in war.
Although she never had a temple of her own, as R. Wilkinson observes, "by virtue of her role in the foundation ceremony she was a part of every temple building" She is depicted as a woman wearing a leopard skin over a robe with a headband holding a stick with a star on top. She holds a writing implement in her right hand and the notched palm stalk representing the years' passage in her left. His name is translated as "Instigator of Confusion" and "Destroyer". Set was originally a hero-god who drove away the serpent Apep Apophis from the barge of the sun god and killed it nightly.
He was a desert god who brought the evil winds of the dry lands to the lush Nile Valley and was associated with foreign lands and people. Set is often characterized as "evil", and did manifest many evil qualities, but was not regarded by the ancient Egyptians as an embodiment of evil or darkness.
He was rather seen as a necessary balance to gods like Osiris and Horus who represented all things noble and good, fertility, vitality, and eternity. Isis returns Osiris to life but, because he is incomplete, descends to the underworld as Lord of the Dead. Isis gives birth to Osiris' son, Horus, who grows up to challenge set for the throne. Shay presided over one's personal destiny and so was associated with goddesses like Meskhenet and Renenutet.
Similar to The Fates of the ancient Greeks, no one could resist or alter Shay's decisions. The scholar Wilkinson cites a text known as Instructions of Amenemopet which states, "None can ignore Shay" He is depicted as being present at the weighing of the heart of the soul in the afterlife or as a man standing in a posture of patience. During the Ptolemaic Dynasty BCE , when Egyptian gods were hellenized, he was known as Agathadaimon, the serpent deity who could tell one's future. He was lord of the wild animals and weapons and so could control both to protect a person who invoked his name.
He was also sought in protection against magic spells cast by one's enemies and possibly against demons or ghosts. He is depicted as a young man with shaved head except for the sidelock denoting youth and carries a quiver of arrows. He often grasps serpents in his hands as though crushing them. This aspect was referred to as Isis-Shentayet. Quite likely invoked as a protectress of widows but references to her are rare and Isis fulfilled that role as she did so many others.
List of Egyptian deities
Her name is mentioned as early as the First Dynasty c. She is depicted as a woman with the head of a lion. Shezmu is depicted in the Pyramid Text killing and cooking the gods for the king's pleasure and, by the Middle Kingdom BCE was seen tormenting the souls of the dead as he "lassoes the damned and corrals them for slaughter, squeezing their heads like grapes in a bloody image of destruction" Wilkinson, His image was softened by others showing his benign and peaceful side as lord of the wine press and this was softened further as he became associated with oils and perfumes.
He was born at the beginning of creation of Atum Ra and sent to create the world with his sister Tefnut goddess of moisture. The two were gone so long that Atum came to miss them and sent his eye the Eye of Ra in search of them. When the eye returned with them, Atum was so happy he cried and his tears created human beings.
She and Tefnut then mated and gave birth to Geb earth and Nut sky who Atum pushed high apart from each other, providing a place for humans to live. Mist was attributed to him as "Lakes of Shu" and the clouds as "Bones of Shu" and he was also associated with light and brightness. In this regard he came to be linked to Thoth and Khonsu, both associated with the moon, because of moonlight.
Magic of the Nile (Gods of Egypt, book 4) by Veronica Scott
Sia formed a dyad with Hu representing the tongue , personification of the authority of the spoken word, and a triad with Hu and Heka, god of magic and medicine but also the primordial force in the universe which empowered life and sustained ma'at. Sia represented the intellect while Hu symbolized the word of Ptah or Atum which brought thought into reality and Heka was the underlying force which gave them power.
Commonly understood to be the husband of the seven cows which are seen with him. His name means "Crocodile" and he was lord of marshes and wetlands and any other wet areas of Egypt. In the Pyramid Texts he is claimed to be the son of Neith and was worshipped widely from the Old Kingdom c. He was said to separate wives from their husbands at a whim. Sobek lived on a mythical mountain at the horizon which he ruled from and so was linked to the authority of the king as he, himself, was lord of a domain.
This link with the horizon associated him with Ra and led to the form of Ra known as Sobek-Ra. Sobek is one of the best known gods of ancient Egypt and was extremely popular in his time. His priests kept live crocodiles in the temples who were fed lavishly on the best cuts of meat and treated better than many human beings of the time. He was also associated with the Nile which was said to issue forth as the sweat of Sobek. His festival was one of the earliest observed and, merged with the Khoiak Festival of Osiris, continued to be celebrated throughout Egypt's history.
He evolved from a god of agriculture and growth to the god of craftsmen and guardian of the Memphis necropolis after Osiris became more popular. Sokar is often depicted as a funerary mound surrounded by falcon heads, as a falcon, or as a falcon-headed man. He is associated with the afterlife as guardian of the entrance to the underworld and the god who carries the deceased king's soul in his barge to paradise. In time, he became associated with Ptah and then Osiris to eventually combine by the Middle Kingdom BCE into Ptah-Sokar-Osiris who was a hybrid funerary deity presiding over the afterlife.
In the earthly realm, he ensured the proper resources reached the eastern border garrisons and helped the king control native populations in those regions. She was worshipped as a cow-goddess in the Predynastic Period c. In this role, she was the mother of Sopdu and so appealed to as a protective influence. Early depictions of Sothis represent her as a cow with a plant between her horns while later images show her as a woman wearing the White Crown of Upper Egypt with horns on her head or feathers with a five-pointed star above her.
She became increasingly identified with Isis and was eventually absorbed into that goddess completely. These spirits symbolically united Upper and Lower Egypt and served the king in life and through death. While the king lived he was identified with Horus, who the souls encouraged, and when the king died he became associated with Osiris, whom the souls mourned and honored. The souls of Pe are depicted as men with falcon heads and those of Nekhen as jackal-headed. Both are seen in tomb inscriptions of the kings kneeling to honor the deceased king's arrival in the afterlife.
Sah and Sothis in the heavens reflected the divine couple Osiris and Isis and the god Sopdu, son of Sothis , the astral form of Horus. She is frequently invoked in healing spells and associated with the goddess Serket. Tatenen was a bisexual god, referred to as "Mother of All the Gods" in one text. Taweret is a goddess of childbirth and fertility who was very popular throughout Egypt's history.
She was invoked regularly for protection of children and help during pregnancy and birth. The ancient Egyptians observed the female hippopotamus to be extremely protective of her children which led to the form of this goddess. Taweret is closely associated with Hathor and called "Follower of Horus" both of which distance her from Set. Like Bes, Taweret was featured on household items such as furniture, cosmetic cases, pots, spoons and in fertility images in the home. She was worshipped from the Old Kingdom c.
Shu and Tefnut were the first two gods Atum created either by mating with his shadow or by spitting. Wilkinson notes that her name represents the sound of spitting and she was often represented "by a pair of lips, spitting, in late texts" Tefnut is the mother of Geb earth and Nut sky who were born so human beings could have somewhere to live. She is most often depicted as a woman seated with a lion's head or a serpent with a lion's head.
Her name comes from "tenemu" which means "beer".